About mallory weiss syndrome

What is mallory weiss syndrome?

Mallory-Weiss syndrome refers to a tear or laceration of the mucous membrane, most commonly at the point where the esophagus and the stomach meet (gastroesophageal junction). Such a tear may result in severe bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract. The immediate cause of the lesion is usually a protracted period of vomiting.

What are the symptoms for mallory weiss syndrome?

Mallory-Weiss syndrome is most commonly characterized by Abdominal pain, a history of severe Vomiting, Vomiting of blood (hematemesis), and the strong involuntary effort to vomit (Retching). The blood is often clotted and has the appearance of “coffee grounds”. The stools may be as dark as tar (melenic). In cases in which there is substantial loss of blood, there may be shock and collapse.

Individuals with Mallory-Weiss syndrome may also experience severe, painless internal gastrointestinal bleeding (hemorrhaging) due to the tears in the mucous membranes. In most cases (80-90%) however, such bleeding ceases spontaneously. In very rare cases, the bleeding may become life-threatening.

What are the causes for mallory weiss syndrome?

In most instances, the immediate cause of Mallory-Weiss syndrome is severe vomiting. This can be associated with chronic alcoholism, but MWS may also result from a severe trauma to the chest or abdomen, chronic hiccups, intense snoring, lifting and straining, inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis) or esophagus (esophagitis), hiatus hernia, convulsions or CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy may develop this disorder as a complication of chemotherapy.

What are the treatments for mallory weiss syndrome?

In many cases, bleeding caused by Mallory-Weiss syndrome will stop without treatment. In cases where the bleeding persists, treatment may include sealing the lesion by applying heat or chemicals (cauterization) or high frequency electrical current (electrocoagulation). Blood transfusions and/or the use of the vasopressive drug, pitressin, may be required. (Among other actions, the hormone pitressin acts upon the muscles of the capillaries to affect blood pressure.. Direct pressure may also be used by inserting a catheter which is surrounded by a balloon. The balloon is then inflated (balloon tamponade) to stop the bleeding. Surgery is usually not necessary unless the bleeding cannot be controlled by conservative measures. Other treatment is symptomatic and supportive.

Embolization may be necessary as a treatment for massive uncontrolled bleeding of the esophagus. This procedure consists of inserting a substance, such as gelfoam, bucrylate, or alcohol (ethanol) and stainless steel coils into the affected area.

What are the risk factors for mallory weiss syndrome?

Cuts and splits on the lining and inner layers of the esophagus due to many forceful reasons like vomiting or straining, Mallory Weiss Tears. The burning and irritation due to these tears are called Mallory Weiss Syndrome.

It is generally felt at an early stage when the cuts are not so deep. But the continuous flow of solid food and the use of vocal cords can raise the issue further.

Risk factors:
It occurs in 1% to 15% of people with severe bleeding in the esophagus or stomach. It can be caused due to many abdominal pressures as follows:

  • Prolonged coughing
  • Heavy lifting or straining
  • Trauma or chest pain
  • CPR
  • Severe vomiting

Certain factors that can further increase the chances of causing this disease are:

  • Bulimia- Eating Disorder
  • Oesophageal Varices- Large Veins in the esophagus
  • Portal Hypertension- High Blood Pressure
  • Heavy Alcohol Use
  • Repeated attacks of vomiting, nausea, and exhaustion
  • Acid reflux

Few measures taken at home before or at the beginning of Mallory Weiss Syndrome can efficiently stop the disease from complicating. They are as follows:

  • Reduce Citric drinks and foods
  • Reduce spicy foods from your diet
  • Eat foods with more water content present in them
  • Reduce consumption of alcohol
  • Avoid Forceful vomiting

Shortness of Breath,Abdominal Pain,Chest Pain,Diarrhea,Nausea,Anxiety,Agitation
H2-receptor blockers as acid reducers,Epinephrine
Vomiting Blood,Dark Sticky Stools,Fainting,Dizziness,Paleness

Is there a cure/medications for mallory weiss syndrome?

The defect caused due to torn lining of the oesophageal muscle is Mallory Weiss Syndrome. It can be due to several careless decisions regarding food consumption and other lifestyle changes.

Follow a simple yet strict diet that includes healthy foods like juicy fruits and fibrous vegetables. It helps in keeping the system clean and free from Tears caused by Mallory Weiss Syndrome.


The healing process of saliva produces immunity enzymes that the bleeding from splits stops soon, and they heal themselves in no time. But if the cut goes deep, it is necessary to take medical advice and treatments accordingly.

  • Medication for reducing effects of stomach acid.
  • Provide H2-Receptor Blockers
  • PPIs (Proton Pump Inhibitors)

Treatments/Therapies which are required at the time of excessive Mallory Weiss Tears:

  • Endoscopy:
  • Band Ligation: Band inserted to tie the end of tears like tying the balloon ending.
  • Electrocoagulation: Sealing tear using Electric current
  • Injection Therapy: Strong medication injected to stop bleeding from splits
  • Hemoclip: Metal clip delivers inside to close the tears

Other Procedures if endoscopy fails:

  • Angiography: Targeting blood artery and infusing drug to close it and stop it from feeding blood to the spit/tear.
  • Laparoscopic process: To sew the split

It is not so severe until all the precautions are considered: avoiding smoking, alcohol, spicy foods, and stale or unhealthy foods. Have a lot of water as water has many healing properties that slowly and gradually defeat the diseases from a root.

Shortness of Breath,Abdominal Pain,Chest Pain,Diarrhea,Nausea,Anxiety,Agitation
H2-receptor blockers as acid reducers,Epinephrine
Vomiting Blood,Dark Sticky Stools,Fainting,Dizziness,Paleness

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