Some researchers have broken Schindler disease into three distinct types. Type I is a severe form that occurs during infancy and is associated with neurological symptoms. Type II is a milder form of the disorder with onset usually in adulthood and mild, if any associated neurological symptoms. Type III is an intermediate form whose onset and severity fall in between the other two. Consequently, the severity and specific symptoms of Schindler disease can vary greatly from patients in one family to those in another.
It is important to note that affected individuals may not have all of the symptoms discussed below. Affected individuals should talk to their physician and medical team about their specific case, associated symptoms and overall prognosis.
SCHINDLER DISEASE TYPE I
Schindler disease type I, the classic form of the disease, begins in infancy. Affected children develop normally until approximately 9 months to 1 year of age. They may then begin to exhibit a delay in the acquisition of skills that require the coordination of mental and muscular activity (psychomotor retardation). After a period of such developmental delays, affected children may begin to lose previously acquired physical and mental abilities (developmental retrogression); such regression may begin at approximately 2 years of age. Affected children may then start to exhibit a variety of neurological symptoms, such as muscular Weakness and diminished muscle tone (hypotonia); involuntary muscle spasms that result in slow, stiff movements (spasticity), misalignment of the eyes (strabismus); involuntary, rapid eye movements (nystagmus); and/or visual impairment due to the gradual deterioration of the nerves of the eyes (optic atrophy). They may also experience brief, shock-like muscle spasms of the arms, legs, or entire body (myoclonic movements and grand-mal Seizures).
SCHINDLER DISEASE TYPE II
In the adult-onset form of Schindler disease (also known as Schindler disease type II or Kanzaki disease), symptoms may not appear until the second or third decade of life. A distinctive symptom of Schindler disease type II is involvement of small blood vessels (telangiectasia) in the skin that cause reddish small skin lesions, and an increase of its horny layer (stratum corneum; hyperkeratosis) referred to as angiokeratomas. The dilation of small lymph vessels may lead to swelling (lymphedema) particularly of the lower extremities.
Angiokeratomas may first be restricted to a single area (localized), such as the lower torso, and then appear later in additional locations (e.g., from the lower torso to the chest area). These reddish lesions may be flat or raised and vary in color, and may occur in clusters. Affected individuals may also have these lesions in other areas of the body such as the mucous membranes including the mouth and eyes.
Individuals with Schindler disease type II have also mild intellectual impairment, but do not show the serious neurological complications associated with Schindler disease type I. Individuals with Schindler disease type II may also develop distinctive facial features including mildly coarse features, thick lips, a depressed nasal bridge and an enlarged tip of the nose. Additional symptoms have been reported in the medical literature including vertigo, hearing loss, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), and muscle Weakness. Patients may also experience pain crises. Many of the latter manifestations are thought to be due to lysosomal storage.
SCHINDLER DISEASE TYPE III
Schindler disease type III, is an intermediate form the disorder. Symptoms can range from more serious intellectual impairment, neurological dysfunction and Seizures to milder neurological and psychiatric issues such as speech and language delays and mild autism-like symptoms.