About hiccough, chronic

What is hiccough, chronic?

A hiccup is an involuntary spasmodic contraction of the muscle at the base of the lungs (diaphragm) followed by the rapid closure of the vocal cords. Usually, hiccups last for a few hours or, occasionally, a day or two. However, chronic hiccups are ones that continue for an extended period of time. Episodes that last for more than two days and less than a month are sometimes called persistent hiccups. On rare occasions, hiccups persist even longer than a month or recur frequently over an extended period of time. The longest recorded episode of these chronic hiccups lasted 60 years.

Sometimes, although not always, hiccups that persist may indicate the presence of another medical problem. Some illnesses for which continuing hiccups may be a symptom include: pleurisy of the diaphragm, pneumonia, uremia, alcoholism, disorders of the stomach or esophagus, and bowel diseases. Hiccups may also be associated with pancreatitis, pregnancy, bladder irritation, liver cancer or hepatitis. Surgery, tumors, and lesions may also cause persistent hiccups.

What are the symptoms for hiccough, chronic?

Hiccups are unmistakable, and rarely taken for anything else. They often start for no apparent reason, and usually go away on their own in a few minutes. Of concern is the period of time required for an episode to run its course. Hiccups that persist over a period of time may cause exhaustion and Weight loss from lack of sleep and the interruption of normal eating patterns.

What are the causes for hiccough, chronic?

The cause of hiccups often is not known, but some of the triggers sometimes thought to cause them include the following: spicy foods, hot liquids, any disease or illness that irritates the nerves that control the diaphragm.

The hiccup reflex involves the synchronized action of the diaphragm, the muscles that open and close the windpipe (trachea), and the nerves that act upon these muscles. Within the spinal cord, the “hiccup center” seems to be located somewhere between the cervical vertebrae numbered C3 and C5. There, nerve fibers from the brain monitor the activity and signal the contraction of the nerve (phrenic nerve) that permits exhalation.

If any of the nerves in this cycle is irritated for whatever reason(s), the diaphragm may contract involuntarily (spasm) and air is drawn into the lungs. This triggers the trachea to close, generating the typical hiccup sound.

The list of conditions that may lead to intractable hiccups is very long and may require long periods of time to isolate and identify. These include but are not limited to: brain lesions, tumors, intestinal diseases, liver or kidney disorders or uremic poisoning. Chronic hiccups may be caused by surgery or the drugs used during surgery. In some cases, a cause is not identified.

What are the treatments for hiccough, chronic?

Treatment of intractable hiccups often involves drug therapy with chlorpromazine (Thorazine), frequently prescribed. Among other medications used are haloperidol, and metoclopramide. If the hiccups occur during anaesthesia or surgery, the treatment is usually ephedrine or ketamine. Hypnosis has been used in some patients, as well as acupuncture. Surgical procedures such as injections into the phrenic nerve, or severing the phrenic nerve in the neck, have been used in cases where all other therapies have failed.

What are the risk factors for hiccough, chronic?

An uncontrollable spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm, a muscle at the base of the lungs, is followed by a quick closure of the vocal cords. Hiccups typically last a few hours or, rarely, a day or two.

  • Chronic hiccups, on the other hand, last for a protracted period of time. Persistent hiccups are frequently used to describe episodes that linger for more than two days but less than a month.
  • Hiccups can occasionally last more than a month or repeatedly occur over a prolonged length of time. The persistent hiccups' longest known bout lasted 60 years.
  • If chronic hiccups interfere with your sleep and eating schedules, they may also have an adverse effect on your quality of life.
  • You can lose weight, feel worn out, and get dehydrated.
  • GERD, also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease, and irregular heartbeat are other side effects.
  • Additionally, they can be accompanied by excruciating stomach pain, fever, shortness of breath, vomiting, spitting up blood, or sensations that the throat is about to constrict.
  • However, it is very unlikely for these hiccups to be fatal.

Pleurisy of the diaphragm,Alcoholism,Uremia
Exhaustion, Weight loss

Is there a cure/medications for hiccough, chronic?

The sole treatment for hiccups recognized by the US Food and Drug Administration is chlorpromazine, which was the preferred prescription for many years.

  • A phenothiazine dimethylamine derivative is a chlorpromazine. It exerts its central action by opposing dopamine in the hypothalamus.
  • Usually, more than just a glass of water is needed to treat chronic or recurrent hiccups.
  • The majority of therapies necessitate a doctor's assistance because chronic hiccups are a medical problem that can potentially be a sign of more serious health problems.
  • In most cases, you cannot fix the problem or treat the problem yourself.

Treatments can include the following depending on the underlying cause:

  • Treating the underlying medical issue producing the hiccups using prescription drugs like metoclopramide, chlorpromazine, baclofen, or valproic acid, having surgery such as implanting a vagus nerve stimulator.
  • Intractable hiccups are usually treated with chlorpromazine (Thorazine), which is routinely administered.
  • Haloperidol and metoclopramide are a couple of the other drugs that are employed.
  • The typical treatment for hiccups that happen during anesthesia or surgery is ephedrine or ketamine.
  • Some patients have had acupuncture as well as hypnosis.
  • In situations where all other treatments have failed, surgeons have employed techniques including phrenic nerve injections or neck phrenic nerve severing.

Pleurisy of the diaphragm,Alcoholism,Uremia
Exhaustion, Weight loss

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